AFGHANISTAN / WORLD DRUG REPORT

26-Jun-2023 00:08:39
Continued record illicit drug supply and increasingly agile trafficking networks are compounding intersecting global crises and challenging health services and law enforcement responses, according to the World Drug Report 2023 launched by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) today. UNIFEED / UNODC
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STORY: AFGHANISTAN / WORLD DRUG REPORT
TRT: 8:39
SOURCE: UNIFEED / UNODC
RESTRICTIONS: NONE
LANGUAGE: ENGLISH / PASHTO / NATS

DATELINE: 17-21 JUNE 2023, KABUL AND NANGARHAR PROVINCES, AFGHANISTAN / 15-16 JUNE 2023, TASHKENT, UZBEKISTAN / FILE
SHOTLIST
17 JUNE 2023, AFGHAN BORDER

1. Aerial shot, border area between Tajikistan and Afghanistan

17 JUNE 2023, KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

2. Driving shots, busy streets of Kabul
3. Wide shots, 1000-bed Avicenna Drug Treatment Centre exterior
4. Close up, wooden fence in treatment center yard
5. Med shot, guards checking food brought by family members for drugs
6. Med shot, patients collecting food items brought by family members
7. Wide shot, patients gathered on floor with food items and guard passing through
8. Med shot, patients gathered on floor with food items
9. Wide shot, empty hallway inside facility
10. Close up, worn-down bed in intake area
11. Wide shot, patients sitting on beds in intake area
12. Close up, flies on beds in intake area
13. Close up, sleeping patient’s foot
14. Wide shot, heath worker tends to man in emergency ward
15. Wide shot, elderly man laying on floor of emergency ward
16. Close up, flies on elderly man laying on floor of emergency ward
17. Various shots, group therapy session
18. Close up, metal door of group therapy room
19. Pan left, building in facility
20. Wide shot, men gathered in outdoor area
21. Wide shot, man leaning against building in outdoor area
22. Close up, de facto authorities’ flag

21 JUNE 2023, KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

23. Wide shot, mountains surrounding Kabul city
24. Wide shot, watchtower inside UN compound
25. Wide shot, UN Flag inside compound

20 JUNE 2023, KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

26. SOUNDBITE (English) Markus Potzel, Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (Political) for Afghanistan, United Nations:
“We cooperate with countries in the region and who actually are willing to do more to support the de facto authorities and drug rehabilitation. Also, in terms of livelihoods, there has to be more support by the international community because it's in all our interests. It's in the interests of the Afghans, but also of countries, donor countries in the West, regional countries, who are all suffering from drug abuse and trafficking.”
27. Wide shot, women sheltering in shade along Jalalabad Road
28. Wide shot, entrance to 5000-bed Aghoosh Drug Rehabilitation Centre
29. Wide shot, men being guided by guard in queue
30. Various shots, staff preparing meal for patients
31. Wide shot, patients que to receive meal
32. Close up, patients sitting on floor eating meal
33. Close up, flour donation facilitated by UNODC
34. Various shots, United Nations officials meeting with de facto authorities during flour distribution
35. SOUNDBITE (English) Anubha Sood, Representative in Afghanistan, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC):
“If there is a ban, it is the small farmer who doesn't have the reserve to make money out of whatever is stored. His crop is gone, and his family's going to starve. So, they are the ones who need the support. It's the common person, whether it's, you know, a small farmer, a male farmer or a female farmer or a youth who's working on his father's field. They are the ones who are going to suffer. And these are the people that we need to think of when we sit and decide whether this money goes for this intervention.”

19 JUNE 2023, SUKHRUD DISTRICT, NANGARHAR, AFGHANISTAN

36. Close up, harvested okra
37. Pan right, okra fields which replaced opium poppy
38. Various shots, farmer harvesting okra
39. SOUNDBITE (Pashto) Mazar Shah, Farmer:
“It’s poverty, people just survive. These vegetables cannot be a replacement for poppy. There is a kind of garlic which has a good return, so if you support us with such [high value] inputs, we will never cultivate poppy, never in a hundred years.”
40. Various shots, farmer harvesting tomatoes
41. Driving shot, women walking on unpaved road

20 JUNE 2023, NANGARHAR, AFGHANISTAN

42. Wide shot, cattle grazing in dried riverbed
43. Close up, Surkh Rod River known locally as the Red River
44. Driving shot, arid mountain on road to Kabul

19 JUNE 2023, JALALABAD, NANGARHAR PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN

45. Various shots, busy streets of Jalalabad city
46. Close up, de facto authorities accompanying UN vehicle in Jalalabad

UNODC – FILE - AFGHANISTAN

47. Various shots, poppy fields

18 JUNE 2023, KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

48. Driving shot, traffic in Kabul
49. Wide shot, 150-bed Women and Children drug treatment center entrance
50. Close up, signage on door to detox room
51. Pan right, women covered in blankets in detox room
52. Med shot, woman covering her face with scarf
53. Close up, patient’s hands
54. Close up, woman crying and wiping tears with scarf
55. Wide shot, therapist in session with patient
56. Wide shot, looking through curtain into staff room

21 JUNE 2023, KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

57. Driving shot, homes on hill in Kabul
58. Wide shot, homes on hill in Kabul
59. Various shots, woman feeding chickens provided in alternative development programme
60. Close up, chickens eating corn
61. Close up, laundry on clothing line in yard with women gather in background
62. Med shot, woman smiling

16 JUNE 2023, TASHKENT, UZBEKISTAN

63. Wide shot, Uzbekistan’s national flag in distance
64. Wide shot, UNODC Regional Office exterior
65. SOUNDBITE (English) Ashita Mittal, Representative for Central Asia, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC):
“What we see today is that in Afghanistan there is not only production of opium and processing into heroin, but also there is production of methamphetamines and synthetics, which is new.”
66. Wide shot, cars on freeway in Tashkent
67. Wide shot, Westminster International University in Tashkent
68. Wide shot, UNODC staff member conducting drug prevention programme for youth
69. Various shots, interactive exercises with youth on drug prevention
70. Med shot, young girl participating in session
71. Wide shot, UNODC staff member speaking to youth on drug prevention
STORYLINE
Continued record illicit drug supply and increasingly agile trafficking networks are compounding intersecting global crises and challenging health services and law enforcement responses, according to the World Drug Report 2023 launched by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) today (26 Jun).

New data put the global estimate of people who inject drugs in 2021 at 13.2 million, 18 per cent higher than previously estimated. Globally, over 296 million people used drugs in 2021, an increase of 23 per cent over the previous decade. The number of people who suffer from drug use disorders, meanwhile, has skyrocketed to 39.5 million, a 45 per cent increase over 10 years.

The Report features a special chapter on drug trafficking and crimes that affect the environment in the Amazon Basin, as well as sections on clinical trials involving psychedelics and medical use of cannabis; drug use in humanitarian settings; innovations in drug treatment and other services; and drugs and conflict.

The World Drug Report 2023 also highlights how social and economic inequalities drive – and are driven by – drug challenges; the environmental devastation and human rights abuses caused by illicit drug economies; and the rising dominance of synthetic drugs.

The demand for treating drug-related disorders remains largely unmet, according to the report. Only one in five people suffering from drug-related disorders were in treatment for drug use in 2021, with widening disparities in access to treatment across regions.

Youth populations are the most vulnerable to using drugs and are also more severely affected by substance use disorder in several regions. In Africa, 70 per cent of people in treatment are under the age of 35.

Public health, prevention, and access to treatment services must be prioritized worldwide, the report argues, or drug challenges will leave more people behind. The report further underscores the need for law enforcement responses to keep pace with agile criminal business models and the proliferation of cheap synthetic drugs that are easy to bring to market.

Reacting to the findings of the report, UNODC Executive Director Ghada Waly said “We are witnessing a continued rise in the number of people suffering from drug use disorders worldwide, while treatment is failing to reach all of those who need it. Meanwhile, we need to step up responses against drug trafficking rings that are exploiting conflicts and global crises to expand illicit drug cultivation and production, especially of synthetic drugs, fueling illicit markets and causing greater harm to people and communities.”

Drug-related disparities and inequalities

The right to health is not granted to many people who use drugs.

Large inequalities in access and availability of controlled drugs for medical use persist, particularly for pain management. The disparity is particularly prevalent between the global North and South and across urban and rural areas, making some people feel the negative impact of drugs more than others. Some 86 per cent of the world’s population live in countries with too little access to pharmaceutical opioids (as controlled under the 1961 Single Convention) – mainly low and middle-income countries.

Some impoverished and vulnerable populations, such as those in the tri-border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, are trapped in rural areas with a high prevalence of drug-related crimes. Their remote locations make it exceedingly difficult for them to benefit from treatment services, resources, or the rule of law.

Illicit drug economies accelerating conflicts, human rights abuses, and environmental devastation

The drug economy in the Amazon Basin is exacerbating additional criminal activities – such as illegal logging, illegal mining, illegal land occupation, wildlife trafficking and more – damaging the environment of the world’s largest rainforest. Indigenous peoples and other minorities are suffering the consequences of this crime convergence, including displacement, mercury poisoning, and exposure to violence, among others. Environmental defenders are sometimes specifically targeted by traffickers and armed groups.

While the war in Ukraine has displaced traditional cocaine and heroin routes, there are signs that the conflict could trigger an expansion of the manufacture and trafficking of synthetic drugs, given the existing know-how and the large markets for synthetic drugs developing in the region.

In the Sahel, the illicit drug trade finances non-state armed and insurgency groups, while in Haiti, drug traffickers take advantage of porous borders to bolster their businesses, fueling the country’s multiplying crises.

Prioritizing public health in regulating medical use of controlled drugs

While new research on the use of controlled drugs such as psychedelics to treat mental health conditions and substance use disorders shows promise, the report cautions that the fast pace of developments could jeopardize efforts to enact policies that place public health concerns over commercial interests. Without well-designed, adequately researched frameworks in place, there may be too little access for those who need treatment – potentially causing patients to turn to illegal markets – or conversely, the psychedelics may be diverted for non-medical use.

Increasing dominance of synthetic drugs

The cheap, easy, and fast production of synthetic drugs has radically transformed many illicit drug markets. Criminals producing methamphetamine – the world’s dominant illegally manufactured synthetic drug – are attempting to evade law enforcement and regulatory responses through new synthesis routes, bases of operation, and non-controlled precursors.

Fentanyl has drastically altered the opioid market in North America with dire consequences. In 2021, the majority of the approximately 90,000 opioid related overdose deaths in North America involved illegally manufactured fentanyls.

Drug ban in Afghanistan may have reversed upward opium production trend

The 2023 opium harvest in Afghanistan may see a drastic drop following the national drug ban, as early reports suggest reductions in poppy cultivation. The benefits of a possible significant reduction in illicit opium cultivation in Afghanistan in 2023 would be global, but it will be at the expense of many farmers in the country who do not have alternative means of income generation. Afghanistan is also a major producer of methamphetamines in the region, and the drop in opiate cultivation could drive a shift towards synthetic drug manufacture, where different actors will benefit.
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