07-Mar-2023 00:03:10
At the Fifth UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries in Doha, Qatar, a series of roundtable discussions on Tuesday saw global leaders dove into climate change. UNIFEED
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TRT: 03:10

1. Pan right, interior, LDC5 venue
2. Wide shot, Stiell at podium
SOUNDBITE (English) Simon Stiell, Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework, Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC):
“Building resilience in LDC capturing economic opportunity are not mutually exclusive. Far from it. The right investments, targeted investments can drive sustainable developments, peaceful, prosperous societies and provide the foundation for a green structural transformation for all LDCs. This can spark economic growth and establish new markets.”
3. Wide shot, speakers
4. SOUNDBITE (English) Selwin Hart, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Climate Action, United Nations:
“How can we move away from simply looking at how these countries can survive to how these countries can thrive, will actually thrive, in an increasingly climate-stressed world, but a world that is inevitably moving towards rapid decarbonization?”
5. Wide shot, speakers
6. SOUNDBITE (English) Selwin Hart, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Climate Action, United Nations
“How can we ensure that the least developed countries and other vulnerable developing countries do not become the destination for old polluting technologies?”
7. Wide shot, speakers
8. SOUNDBITE (English) Selwin Hart, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Climate Action, United Nations:
“How can we ensure that rather than seeing less than 1 percent of clean energy and renewable investment going to Africa that we can see significant amounts of clean and renewable energy investments going to Africa and to the least developed countries? I think that this needs to be one of the plans of action, in addition, of course, to help them to deal with the worst impacts of climate change. The only way these economies are going to grow at the pace and scale needed to retrieve their populations from poverty is that they have access to cheap, sustainable, and affordable services.”
9. Wide shot, interior, LDC5 venue
10. Wide shot, speakers, roundtable hall
11. SOUNDBITE (English) Kausea Natano, Prime Minister, Tuvalu:
“Vulnerable countries, communities, especially in atoll nations, like Tuvalu, would be at risk, and this is further driving up inequality, undermining health systems, food, and water security.”
12. Wide shot, speakers, roundtable hall
13. SOUNDBITE (English) Kausea Natano, Prime Minister, Tuvalu:
“The fact that there is no vaccine against climate change and disasters makes even a stronger case for greater investment in disaster risk reduction and adaptation, especially for least developed countries.”
14. Wide shot, speakers, roundtable hall
At the Fifth UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDC5) in Doha, Qatar, a series of roundtable discussions today (7 Mar) saw global leaders dove into climate change.

Addressing the root causes of climate change and increasing available resources for adaptation are key to the future success and resilience of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

On average, people in the LDCs are six times more likely to be injured, lose their homes, be displaced, evacuated, or require emergency assistance than those in high-income countries.

Economic losses due to disasters are also disproportionately higher in the least developed countries.

The LDCs are among the most vulnerable nations on the planet to the adverse impacts of climate change.

Disasters disproportionately impact LDCs in terms of economic losses, deaths, and missing persons, disrupted livelihoods, and damage to critical infrastructure.

According to data from the Sendai Framework Monitor, in 2020, LDCs reported about 26 percent of persons with livelihoods disrupted or destroyed by disasters, even though they account for only about 15 percent of the total population of countries reporting.

While LDCs account for about 4 percent of the GDP of countries reporting, they suffered 10 percent of the reported economic losses and 6 percent of the reported destruction or damage to critical infrastructure.

Weather-related hazards cause most economic loss, and the LDCs consistently rank food, water, ecosystems, and infrastructure as the most vulnerable systems to climate change hazards.

Adaptation in agriculture and livestock is of primary importance for LDCs and can have major implications on food security.

This affects livelihoods, especially those of the most vulnerable segments of society, and employment.

Water resources already face multiple pressures and are highly sensitive to climate change, such as a disruption in rainfall patterns and increased frequency of both extreme and slow-onset events.

Furthermore, climate change impacts can act as a threat multiplier and trigger or exacerbate conflicts, including over scarce natural resources.

At the same time, LDCs are rich in biodiversity and natural resource endowments.

The Doha Programme of Action and other relevant international agreements call for ensuring that the LDCs can adapt and reduce disaster risk faster than the pace of worsening climate impacts.

There are several important outcomes from COP 26 and COP 27 for the LDCs.

The challenge ahead is to ensure implementation.

In addition, the LDCs must receive the necessary support in terms of finance and technology transfer to ensure that strong economic growth is decoupled from emissions, reduces rather than creates disaster risk, and does not erode their natural resource base nor degrade their often-fragile ecosystems.

Over the 21 years since the establishment of the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), 51 current and graduated LDCs gained access to USD 1.75 billion in grants (as of September 2022).

However, the demand for fund resources exceeded the funds available for new approvals.

Under the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the largest dedicated climate fund, by July 2022, total funding for the LDCs reached USD 3 billion, or 28 percent of the Fund’s global portfolio.

By the end of 2020, the Adaptation Fund had approved a cumulative total for LDCs of USD 205 million for projects and readiness grants worth USD 844,000 since its creation in 2001.

The commitment to provide USD 100 billion must be achieved urgently.

The second replenishment of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) is also a critical milestone.

The Doha Programme of Action for the LDCs provides important areas for complementary action on the SDGs, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, decisions under the UNFCCC, and environmental agreements and bodies.

The LDCs continue to face difficulties in accessing finance.

Most LDCs cannot directly access international public finance but rely on the international system to assist them.

Furthermore, LDCs face constraints in preparing adaptation plans and projects for financing under the established funds, both because of shortage of technical capacity and because the access conditions are complicated and onerous.

Enhanced support is needed to assist the LDCs in preparing bankable projects, including through established mechanisms such as the LDC Expert Group and the new UNFCCC-led UN-wide National Adaptation Plan partnership (UN4NAPs).

LDCs also face significant gaps and capacity constraints in meeting disaster risk reduction targets outlined in the Sendai Framework.

Enhanced financing, technology transfer, and capacity building is needed for LDCs to collect disaster loss and damage data, conduct multi-hazard risk assessments that include climate forecasts, and install multi-hazard early warning systems.

It is critical that this disaster risk information informs policy and investment decisions in all sectors while also increasing public access to disaster risk information and early warnings.

Integrating a risk-informed approach to development planning and economic policy, including structural transformation and the development of productive capacities, can be supported by implementing multi-hazard and multisectoral national and local disaster risk reduction strategies aligned with the Sendai Framework.

Such strategies are most effective when endorsed at the highest level of government, supported by regulations and legislation, and linked with economic and development policy, planning, and budgeting processes.

The Doha Programme of Action highlights the importance of multi-hazard early warning systems.

The upcoming mid-term review of the Sendai Framework provides an excellent occasion to assess progress made by LDCs in implementing the Sendai Framework, strengthen linkages with the Doha Programme of Action, and provide specific recommendations for LDCs to close the gaps.

With a view to building readiness for the newly established Loss and Damage Fund, until it becomes operational after COP 28, the activities of the Santiago network will catalyze technical assistance to enable LDCs to develop concrete actions to address losses and damages due to climate change.

Reliable sources of clean energy are essential for LDCs to build productive capacity, move up global value chains, decouple economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions, and improve health-related impacts of domestic energy use, especially for women and girls.

The pathway to net-zero emissions requires a substantial increase in the share of renewable energy in all three main end-use categories: electricity, transport, and heating/cooling.

Despite the immense renewable potential of the energy sector in LDCs, these countries rarely benefit from larger financing schemes to the same extent as more prosperous, developing countries.

While public finance remains a significant source of global renewables investments and key to leveraging private finance, financial flows to LDCs remain far short of the level required to meet energy targets by 2030.

Of the USD 14 billion commitments to developing countries supporting clean energy in 2018, USD 2.8 billion were allocated to LDCs.

Over the period 2010-2018, LDCs attracted 20 percent of total financial flows (or USD 26.8 billion) – a share that has remained relatively stable.

To achieve renewable energy goals, LDCs need to strengthen institutions dedicated to renewable energy policy, regulation, and standardization to drive change at the required scale and pace.

To do so, the LDCs need enhanced access to different sources of financing and dedicated support to build capacity and assist developers in preparing bankable and resilient renewable energy projects.

Furthermore, energy policy decisions and planning using robust data, factoring in long-term scenarios, and climate adaptation could improve the cost-effectiveness of renewable energy projects and help build resilience.
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