PERU / PLANT BREEDING

Preview Language:   Original
03-Nov-2012 00:06:00
Few plants thrive at altitudes of over 4,000 metres, where soil is poor, water scarce and the winters harsh. But farmers in the High Andes of Peru can grow varieties of sturdy grains, such as barley, that can survive under extreme weather conditions. These have been developed with a plant breeding technique that uses radiation on seeds to induce changes in plants. IAEA

Available Language: Original
Type
Language
Format
Acquire
/
Original
Other Formats
Description
STORY: PERU / PLANT BREEDING
TRT: 6.00
SOURCE: IAEA
RESTRICTIONS: NONE
LANGUAGE: ENGLISH / SPANISH / NATS

DATELINE: MAY 2012, LIMA, HUANCAYO, JUNIN, PERU


SHOTLIST:

1. Zoom in barely harvest High Andes, Peru
2. Various shots, harvesting Centenario barley
3. Tilt down, musician and drum
4. Med shot, musician and farmers
5. Pan left, barley fields and drum
6. Close up, barely
7. Med shot, men harvesting
8. Close up, donkeys’ feet
9. Med shot, donkeys
10. Close up,donkeys’ feet
11. Med shot, musician and donkeys
12. Close up, barley
13. Wide shot, harvesting
14. Wide shot, mountains
15. Zoom out, harvesting
16. Close up, harvesting
17. Tilt up, harvesting, sky
18. SOUNDBITE (English) Luz Gomez Pando, Professor, ‘La Molina’ University:
“Barley was growing for centuries in Peru, it was brought by the Spanish people but the varieties that the farmers were growing were for animal feed so we decided to improve that, we decided to have a barley that could be used for human food.”
19. Zoom in, IPEN, Lima, Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy
20. Close up, bag of seeds
21. Med shot, technician puts seeds into irradiator
22. Close up, technician’s face
23. Close up, technician closes irradiator
24. Close up, irradiator switched on
25. Med shot, irradiator in operation
26. Close up, radioactive material sign
27. Med shot, irradiator in operation
28. Close up, irradiation timer
29. Wide shot, ‘La Molina’ University
30. Med shot, scientist in La Molina plant breeding lab
31. Close up, test tubes with seeds
32. Med shot, barley field in Andes and Prof. Gomez Pando
33. Med shot, plant breeding lab
34. Close up, seeds
35. Med shot, Prof. Gomez Pando with barley
36. Zoom in, Centenario barely
37. Tilt up, Centenario fields and tractor
38. Close up, barley grains poured into sack
39. Pan right, barley harvesting
40. Tilt down, tying the bag of Centenario barley
41. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Erwin Ortega Carvajal, farmer:
“Compared to all other types of barley, Centenario is the best, because it has more grains and they are heavier. It’s also a very good source of food for our children and it’s good for their development.”

42. Med shot, Prof. Gomez Pando talking to Centenario barley farmers in Conopa
43. Wide shot, Prof. Gomez Pando talking to Centenario barley farmers in Conopa
44. Med shot, Prof. Gomez Pando meeting farmers
45. Tilt up, bag of Centenario barley
46. Close up, woman’s face at market
47. Med shot, Prof. Gomez Pando distributes seeds to farmers
48. Wide shot, Jauja market
49. Med shot, Jauja market
50. Med shot, barley seller, Jauja market
51. Close up, woman at Jauja market
52. Close up, scales
53. Close up, trader’s face
54. Zoom out, Centenario barley, trader
55. Wide shot, Aramachay village, High Andes
56. Wide shot, children play at school in Aramachay
57. Wide shot, Aramachay, sheep
58. Zoom in, Juan Paytan in Centenario field
59. Close up, Juan Paytan
60. Close up, Juan’s hand with Centenario grains
61. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Juan Paytan, farmer:
What I need now is to find a broader market, for example, in the capital Lima, to be able to satisfy the large demand for barley. Especially if you consider the high yield of the Centenario variety.
62 Tilt down, El Gran Molino bakery, Lima
63. Med shot, inside the bakery
64. Close up, kneading dough
65. Close up, kneading dough
66. Med shot, bakers making bread
67. Close up, closing the oven door
68. Med shot, bakers
69. Med shot, customers in bakery
70. Close up, woman selects bread
71. Med shot, customers queue to pay
72. Tilt down, woman paying, cash till
73. Zoom out, Centenario flour
74. Close up, flour in bowl
75. Close up, switching on mixer
76. Close up, flour being mixed
77. Close up, face of baker
78. Close up, dough being mixed
79. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Celestino Peralta Aguirre:
“These products come from the poorest farmers. So it‘s a matter of creating a market for their products where they can sell them and benefit from the sale of these cereals.”
80. Wide shot, La Molina’s experimental plot, High Andes, Prof. Gomez Pando
81. Med shot, Prof. Gomez Pando looks at barley
82. Med shot, barley
83. Close up, barley
84. Med shot, barley
85. Wide shot, farmers harvesting


STORYLINE:

It’s harvest time for barley in the High Andes of Peru. Some farmers still harvest in the traditional way.

Music from a Pinkullo flute and Tinya drum entertains the workers and encourages them to compete against each other. The villagers here are expecting a good crop – with enough to feed their families
and a surplus to sell.

This wasn’t always the case – few plants survive at altitudes of around 4,000 metres.

Plant breeders from La Molina National Agrarian University in Lima wanted to change this, as Professor Luz Gomez Pando explains.

SOUNDBITE (English) Professor Luz Gomez Pando, ‘La Molina’ University, Peru:
“Barley was growing for centuries in Peru, it was brought by the Spanish people but the varieties that the farmers were growing were for animal feed so we decided to improve that, we decided to have barley that could be used for human food.”

It all started here – through a project, sponsored by the IAEA and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

A technique that uses radiation on seeds to induce changes in plants was applied.

The gamma rays speed up the process of spontaneous change that occurs in nature
but can take millions of years.

The irradiated barley seeds were planted at La Molina University in Lima. Breeders, led by Professor Gomez Pando, selected the best plants and replanted their seeds.

This selection process continued for seven years until eventually – in 2006 - Centenario
was born.

This barley is proving to be Peru’s best variety to date. It provides more grain than other barleys – it’s tasty and rich in protein. Centenario is also disease resistant and tolerant to the extreme weather conditions in the Andes.

Most importantly it’s improving the income and diet of the people in this remote region, people like Erwin Ortega Carvajal – a barley farmer.

SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Erwin Ortega Carvajal, farmer:
“Compared to all other types of barley, Centenario is the best, because it has more grains and they are heavier. It’s also a very good source of food for our children and it’s good for their development.”

Professor Gomez Pando works closely with the farmers in the Highlands. She provides advice on how to cultivate and cook local grains and also distributes Centenario seeds.

Centenario barley fetches a much better price at market than other varieties. This local trader buys it here, processes it into flour or pearled barley and sells it around the country.


At an altitude of 3,700 metres, people in the village of Aramachay, also enjoy the benefits that Centenario brings.

Juan Paytan is one of many farmers here who grow this barley. His family uses it for their own meals. And Juan sells seeds to his neighbours and grain to local mills.

SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Juan Paytan, farmer:
“What I need now, is to find a broader market, for example, in the capital Lima, to be able to satisfy the large demand for barley. Especially if you consider the high yield of the Centenario variety.”

In Lima the El Gran Molino bakery chain is one promising outlet for grains from the Andes.

The owner, Celestino Peralta Aguirre, is working closely with La Molina University to increase the use of national grains in his bread products.

20,000 pieces of bread are sold here every day – and this is just one of 18 outlets.

The baker is replacing wheat with other sources of flour – such as barley. He’s using flour made from Centenario and provided by small mills in the Highlands.

SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Celestino Peralta Aguirre, Bakery owner:
“These products come from the poorest farmers. So it‘s a matter of creating a market for their products where they can sell them and benefit from the sale of these cereals.”

Professor Gomez Pando is now trying to develop further, improved, varieties of the native grains.

In the mountains, she maintains this experimental plot – where barely cultivated from irradiated seeds – is growing.

From these hundreds of plants one or two new varieties could emerge, which would bring better nutrition, more food and extra income to the people in this remote but beautiful part of the world.
Series
Category
Geographic Subjects
Creator
IAEA
Asset ID
U121103a