NON PROLIFERATION TREATY REVIEW CONFERENCE, New York, 2-27 May 2005 (Advancer)

28-Apr-2005
The 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) will meet at the United Nations in New York from 2 to 27 May 2005. The President-designate of the Conference is Mr. Sergio de Queiroz Duarte, Ambassador-at-large of Brazil.

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STORY: UN NUCLEAR TERRORISM

TRT: 3.14

SOURCE: UNTV /FILE

RESTRICTIONS: NONE

LANGUAGE: CH 1 ENGLISH / NATS
CH 2 ENGLISH / NATS

DATELINE: 22 APRIL 2005, NEW YORK CITY / FILE

SHOTLIST:

1. Wide shot, exterior, UN headquarters
2. Close up, flag

22 April 2005, New York City

3. Wide shot, World Chronicle studio
4. SOUNDBITE (English) Ambassador Sergio de Queiroz Duarte (Brazil), President-designate, NPT Review Conference:
"The question is that the provisions hat deal with proliferation is much more explicit, there is a system of verification, there is a system by the IAA to monitor compliance and there's even eventually the possibility of bringing violators to the Security Council for possible sanctions. But on the side of the nuclear arm provision, that deals with it in a more general, vaguer, way. It leaves, more or less, for the local countries to say in which way they will implement their obligations. And there is of course no verification of that. So, the implementation of course, is different on either side of the equation."

FILE -

5. Various shots, United States nuclear facilities
6. Various shots, Soviet Union nuclear facilities
7. Various shots, soldiers with nuclear missile

22 April 2005, New York City

8. SOUNDBITE (English) Ambassador Sergio de Queiroz Duarte (Brazil), President-designate, NPT Review Conference:
"Well, I know that the US and Russia have been cooperating very closely on trying to keep that arsenal under control and not only the arsenal itself, or the fissionable material of things of that type but also the minds of the people who devised those things. I'm not an expert on that, I don't think I can make any authoritative statement on this, but on one thing that I heard from experts or scientists from the former Soviet Union but also form other countries in the world that might be tapped for money to do things for illicit purposes. So I think we should be concerned not only with the former Soviet Union but with the rest of the international scientific community."

UNTV FILE - Eisenhower at UN General Assembly 8 December 1953

9. SOUNDBITE (English) Dwight D. Eisenhower, former U-S President:
"The atomic age has moved forward at such a pace, that every citizen of the world should have some comprehension at least in comparative terms of the extent of this development."

FILE - DOD

10. Nuclear explosion


STORYLINE:

The 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) will meet at the United Nations in New York from 2 to 27 May 2005. The President-designate of the Conference is Mr. Sergio de Queiroz Duarte, Ambassador-at-large of Brazil.

The Treaty, particularly article VIII, paragraph 3, envisages a review of the operation of the Treaty every five years, a provision which was reaffirmed by the States parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference and the 2000 NPT Review Conference. At the 2005 Review Conference, States parties will examine the implementation of the Treaty's provisions since 2000.

The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The NPT represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States.

Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970. Since its entry into force, the NPT has been the cornerstone of global nuclear non-proliferation regime. Adherence to the Treaty by 188 States, including the five nuclear-weapon States, renders the Treaty the most widely adhered to multilateral disarmament agreement.

History of the Treaty From the beginning of the nuclear age, and the use of nuclear weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, it has been apparent that the development of nuclear capabilities by States could enable them to divert technology and materials for weapons purposes.

Thus the problem of preventing such diversions became a central issue in discussions on peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Initial efforts, which began in 1946, to create an international system enabling all States to have access to nuclear technology under appropriate safeguards, were terminated in 1949 without the achievement of this objective, due to serious political differences between the major Powers.

By then, both the United States and the former Soviet Union had tested nuclear weapons, and were beginning to build their stockpiles. In December 1953, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower in his "Atoms for Peace" proposal, presented to the eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly, and urged that an international organization be established to disseminate peaceful nuclear technology, while guarding against development of weapons capabilities in additional countries. His proposal resulted in 1957 in the establishment of the IAEA, which was charged with the dual responsibility of promotion and control of nuclear technology.

IAEA technical assistance activities began in 1958. An interim safeguards system for small nuclear reactors, put in place in 1961, was replaced in 1964 by a system covering larger installations and, over the following years, was expanded to include additional nuclear facilities (INFCIRC/66 and revisions). In recent years, efforts to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system culminated in the approval of the Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540) by the IAEA Board of Governors in May 1997. (For detailed information see Fact Sheet No. 2.)

Within the framework of the United Nations, the principle of nuclear non-proliferation was addressed in negotiations as early as 1957 and gained significant momentum in the early 1960s. The structure of a treaty to uphold nuclear non-proliferation as a norm of international behaviour had become clear by the mid-1960s, and by 1968 final agreement had been reached on a Treaty that would prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, enable co-operation for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament.

The Treaty provided, in article X, for a conference to be convened 25 years after its entry into force to decide whether the Treaty should continue in force indefinitely, or be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Accordingly, at the NPT Review and Extension Conference in May 1995, States parties to the Treaty agreed-without a vote-on the Treaty's indefinite extension, and decided that review conferences should continue to be held every five years.
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