WHO / CHIKUNGUNYA DENGUE ZIKA

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14-Nov-2019 00:03:35
A technique that sterilizes male mosquitoes using radiation will soon be tested as part of global health efforts to control diseases such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. WHO

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STORY: WHO / CHIKUNGUNYA DENGUE ZIKA
TRT: 3:35
SOURCE: WHO
RESTRICTIONS: NONE
LANGUAGE: ENGLISH / NATS

DATELINE: 14 NOVEMBER 2019, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND / FILE

SHOTLIST:

14 NOVEMBER 2019, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND

1.Med shot, Fouque being interviewed
2.SOUNDBITE (English) Florence Fouque, Scientist, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR):
“This particular type of mosquito are the species Aedes and they are transmitting arboviruses. The main arboviruses are Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. And the burden is very, very big since half of the world population is exposed to this transmission risk. And this all together disease cause several millions of cases every year, including several thousand of deaths.”
3.Close up, report
4.SOUNDBITE (English) Florence Fouque, Scientist, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR):
“We currently have very little vector control tool that are strongly efficient against this vector-borne diseases, and they are not easy to deploy. This technology, which is new for Aedes mosquitoes, will be much more easily deployed and will have a stronger impact on the vector population densities, reducing them, the number of mosquitoes and the burden of the disease.”
5.Wide shot, Bouyer walking with Fouque
6.SOUNDBITE (English) Jérémy Bouyer, Medical Entomologist at the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture:
“So the sterile insect technique also called SIT, is a birth control technique for insects. The principle is that you release sterile males over an area for a sufficient time to induce sterility in the wild females. Which means that they will still be able to lay eggs, but these eggs will be sterile, they will not hatch. And so you will control the next generation of mosquitoes and progressively, you will reduce the density of your mosquito population.”
7.Med shot,, Bouyer and Fouque reading a report
8.SOUNDBITE (English) Jérémy Bouyer, Medical Entomologist at the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture:
“So in the guidance that we propose, we are explaining to the countries how they should test this technology, starting from the study of the target population to a phase condition approach, including small scale trials where they will have to demonstrate the impact on the vectors in cities and also on the transmission of the disease.”

FILE – IAEA

9.Various shots, IAEA Insect Pest Control Laboratory

14 NOVEMBER 2019, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND

10.SOUNDBITE (English) Jérémy Bouyer, Medical Entomologist at the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture:
“We already have evidence of impact on the mosquito populations. So we know that, at a small scale, it allowed reducing significantly the density of the vectors. And the next step will be to prove that this reduction is impacting the transmission of the viruses. And when we have this demonstration, we will be able to upscale the technology and then reduce the cost of its application.”

FILE – IAEA

11.Various shots, IAEA Insect Pest Control Laboratory

STORYLINE:

A technique that sterilizes male mosquitoes using radiation will soon be tested as part of global health efforts to control diseases such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika.

The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a form of insect birth control. The process involves rearing large quantities of sterilized male mosquitoes in dedicated facilities, and then releasing them to mate with females in the wild. As they do not produce any offspring, the insect population declines over time.

The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and WHO have developed a guidance document for countries that have expressed interest in testing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for Aedes mosquitoes.

In recent decades, the incidence of dengue has increased dramatically due to environmental changes, unregulated urbanization, transport and travel, and insufficient sustainable vector control tools and their application.

Florence Fouque, Scientist at the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) said, “this particular type of mosquito are the species Aedes and they are transmitting arboviruses. The main arboviruses are Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. And the burden is very, very big since half of the world population is exposed to this transmission risk. And this all together disease cause several millions of cases every year, including several thousand of deaths.”

Fouqu continued, “we currently have very little vector control tool that are strongly efficient against this vector-borne diseases, and they are not easy to deploy. This technology, which is new for Aedes mosquitoes, will be much more easily deployed and will have a stronger impact on the vector population densities, reducing them, the number of mosquitoes and the burden of the disease.”

Dengue outbreaks are currently occurring in several countries, notably on the Indian sub-continent. Bangladesh is facing the worst outbreak of dengue since its first recorded epidemic in 2000. The South Asian nation has seen the number of cases rise to over 92,000 since January 2019, with daily admissions peaking at more than 1,500 new dengue patients in hospitals in recent weeks and is one of the countries to express interest in the Sterile Insect Technique.

Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes such as malaria, dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever account for about 17 per cent of all infectious diseases globally, claiming more than 700,000 lives each year, and inflicting suffering on many more. The 2015 outbreak of Zika in Brazil was linked to an increase in the number of babies being born with microcephaly.

The Sterile Insect Technique was first developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and has been used successfully to target insect pests that attack crops and livestock, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly and the New World screwworm fly. It is currently in use globally in the agriculture sector on six continents.

The guidance on using the technique to control diseases in humans recommends adopting a phased approach that allows time to test the efficacy of the sterilized insects. Epidemiological indicators monitor the impact of the method on disease-transmission. It also provides recommendations on mass production of the sterile mosquitoes, government and community engagement, measuring the impact.

Jérémy Bouyer, a Medical Entomologist said, “in the guidance that we propose, we are explaining to the countries how they should test this technology, starting from the study of the target population to a phase condition approach, including small scale trials where they will have to demonstrate the impact on the vectors in cities and also on the transmission of the disease.”

Bouyer also said, “we already have evidence of impact on the mosquito populations. So we know that, at a small scale, it allowed reducing significantly the density of the vectors. And the next step will be to prove that this reduction is impacting the transmission of the viruses. And when we have this demonstration, we will be able to upscale the technology and then reduce the cost of its application.”

The collaborative effort includes plans to support three multi-country teams of research institutions, vector control agencies and public health stakeholders to test the Sterile Insect Technique against Aedes mosquitoes.
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